Water Pollution Essay

Water Pollution Essay

Water Pollution Essay

Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.

Chemical contamination of fresh water can also seriously damage eco-systems.

Water pollution is a major global problem.

Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater.

Water pollution accounted for the deaths of 1.8 million people in 2015.


Water pollution in India and China is wide spread. About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted.


It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells).

Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment.

Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream.

The organization proposes a number of measures for fixing the situation, but they should be taken in the next 10 years for being effective.

Water Pollution Essay


For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by storm water management facilities that absorb the runoff or direct it into groundwater, such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins.

Surface water pollution includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans. A subset of surface water pollution is marine pollution.


In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream.

Runoff mitigation systems include infiltration basins, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices.

Sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from untreated wastewater.

They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation.

Pollution prevention practices include low-impact development techniques, installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides).

Water Pollution Essay


Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e.g. due to water-borne diseases.

Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow.


These techniques, called best management practices for water pollution (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions.


Water pollution can be classified as surface water or groundwater pollution.

Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff.


Marine pollution and nutrient pollution are subsets of water pollution.

Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pollutant discharges.

Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants.

Water Pollution Essay


Physical, chemical and biological tests can be conducted. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans.

Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non-point sources.

An example is silt-bearing surface runoff, which can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.


Point sources have one identifiable cause of the pollution, such as a storm drain or a wastewater treatment plant.

There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition.

Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.


Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff.

This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation.

Water Pollution Essay


Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time.

Many of these long-lasting pieces end up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals.


All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted.

Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it.


The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of.

Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris.

The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters.

Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.

Elevated temperatures can also lead to polluted water.

In industrialized areas rain can be acidic because of dissolved oxides of sulfur and nitrogen formed from burning of fossil fuels in cars, factories, trains and aircraft and from the atmospheric emissions of industry. In some cases this acid rain results in pollution of lakes and rivers.

Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control at construction sites can also help prevent water pollution.

The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants.

Water Pollution Essay


A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.

The largest petroleum spill that has ever occurred in fresh water was caused by a Royal Dutch Shell tank ship in Magdalena, Argentina, on 15 January 1999, polluting the environment, drinkable water, plants and animals.

Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species.

In the United States, best management practices for water pollution include approaches to reduce the quantity of water and improve water quality.


One of the main concerns, is that water pollution, heart phytoplankton who produce 70% of oxygen and remove a large part of carbon dioxide on earth.

Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish.

Water pollution from human activity, including oil spills and also presents a problem for freshwater resources.

Water Pollution Essay


Water pollution is measured by analysing water samples.

For example, in a report on water quality in the United States in 2009, 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted.

An example is directly discharging sewage and industrial waste into the ocean.

In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems.

Nature-based solutions are another
approach to prevent water pollution.

The organization Global Oceanic Environmental Survey (GOES) consider water pollution as one of the main environmental problems that can present a danger for the existence of life on earth in the next decades.


One common path of entry by contaminants to the sea are rivers.

Water Pollution Essay

Pollution such as this occurs particularly in developing nations. In fact, the 10 largest emitters of oceanic plastic pollution worldwide are, from the most to the least as,

• China,
• Indonesia,
• Philippines,
• Vietnam,
• Sri Lanka,
• Thailand,
• Egypt,
• Malaysia,
• Nigeria, and
• Bangladesh,
• largely through the rivers
• Yangtze,
• Indus,
• Yellow,
• Hai,
• Nile,
• Ganges,
• Pearl,
• Amur,
• Niger, and the
• Mekong, and
• accounting for “90 percent of all the plastic that reaches the world’s oceans.”

It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases.

Water Pollution Essay



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