RBC Full Form – Red Blood Cell

RBC Full Form

RBC Full Form – Red Blood Cell

The word “Red blood cells” also known as “RBC”, also referred to as red cells.

The word “Erythroid cells” comes From Greek “erythros” for “red” and kytos for “hollow vessel”, with -cyte translated as “cell” in modern usage.

red blood corpuscles “in humans or any other animals not having nucleus in red blood cells“, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate’s principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues via blood flow through the circulatory system.

RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or in fish the gills, and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body’s capillaries.

Each human red blood cell contains approximately 270 million of these hemoglobin molecules.

The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, it’s an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells and the blood.

In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks.

The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network.

RBC Full Form – Red Blood Cell

They lack a cell nucleus and most organelles, to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin.

they can be viewed as sacks of hemoglobin, with a plasma membrane as the sack.

Approximately 2.4 million new erythrocytes are produced per second in human adults.

The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100–120 days in the body before their components are recycled by macrophages.

Each circulation takes about 60 seconds (one minute).

Nearly half of the blood’s volume (40% to 45%) is red blood cells.

Approximately 84% of the cells in the human body are 20–30 trillion red blood cells.

Packed red blood cells “PRBC”are red blood cells that have been donated, processed, and stored in a blood bank for blood transfusion.

Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus.

In comparison, the red blood cells of other vertebrates have nuclei.

the only known exceptions are salamanders of the genus Batrachoseps and fish of the genus Maurolicus.

The elimination of the nucleus in vertebrate red blood cells has been offered as an explanation for the subsequent accumulation of non-coding DNA in the genome.

The argument runs as Efficient gas transport requires red blood cells to pass through very narrow capillaries, and this constrains their size.

In the absence of “nuclear elimination”, the accumulation of repeat sequences is constrained by the volume occupied by the nucleus, which increases with genome size.

Nucleated red blood cells in mammals consist of two forms such as

•”Normoblasts”, which are normal erythropoietic precursors to mature red blood cells, and

•”Megaloblasts”, which are abnormally large precursors that occur in megaloblastic anemias.

“Membrane composition” the Red blood cells are deformable,
flexible, are able to adhere to other cells, and are able to interface with immune cells.

Half of the membrane mass in human and most mammalian red blood cells are proteins. The other half are lipids, namely phospholipids and cholesterol.

Their membrane plays many roles in this. These functions are highly dependent on the membrane composition.

The red blood cell membrane is composed of 3 layers: the glycocalyx on the exterior, which is rich in carbohydrates.

The lipid bilayer which contains many transmembrane proteins, besides its lipidic main
constituents.

The membrane skeleton, a structural network of proteins located on the inner surface of the lipid bilayer.

The red blood cell membrane comprises a typical lipid bilayer, similar to what can be found in virtually all human cells.

Simply put, this lipid bilayer is composed of cholesterol and phospholipids in equal proportions by weight.

The lipid composition is important as it defines many physical properties such as membrane permeability and fluidity.

The activity of many membrane proteins is regulated by interactions with lipids in the bilayer.

Unlike cholesterol, which is evenly distributed between the inner and outer leaflets, the five major phospholipids are asymmetrically disposed, as:-

RBC Full Form – Red Blood Cell

Outer monolayer:-

Sphingomyelin (SM).
Phosphatidylcholine (PC);

Inner monolayer:-

Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE);
Phosphatidylserine (PS);
Phosphoinositol (PI) (in small amounts).

This asymmetric phospholipid distribution among the bilayer is the result of the function of several energy-dependent and energy-independent phospholipid transport proteins.

Proteins called “Flippases” move phospholipids from the outer to the inner monolayer, while others called “floppases” do the opposite operation, against a concentration gradient in an energy dependent manner.

There are also “scramblase” proteins that move phospholipids in both directions at the same time, down their concentration gradients in an energy-independent manner.

There is still considerable debate ongoing regarding the identity of these membrane maintenance proteins in the red cell membrane.

RBC Full Form – Red Blood Cell

See Also : WHO

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